Showing posts with label Prime Minister. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Prime Minister. Show all posts

Thursday, July 5, 2018

Mathabar Singh Thapa

Mathabar_Singh_Thapa
Mathabar Singh Thapa (माथवरसिंह थापा) born 1798, Borlang, Gorkha - 17 May 1845, Basantapur, Kathmandu) was the Prime Minister and Commander in chief of the Nepalese Army from 1843 December 25 – 1845 May 17, until he was murdered by his nephew Jung Bahadur Rana. He was the first Mukhtiyar to title himself as a Prime Minister, as per the British convention. He was the nephew of Bhimsen Thapa, who was falsely sentenced for imprisonment for the death of King Rajendra's six months old son. Mathabar Singh Thapa fled to Shimla after the execution of Bhimsen Thapa, to avoid his own execution as he was Bhimsen’s nephew. Four years later, the second queen of Rajendra, Queen Rajya Lakshmi, called him back and installed him as the Prime Minister. Mathabar Singh, however, enraged the queen by refusing to make her son, Ranendra Bikram, the king. The queen, in turn, had him shot by his own nephew Janga Bahadur Rana and thereby making him the last dynast of the Thapa dynasty.

Early years
Not much is known of Mathabar Singh Thapa's childhood. He was born in Borlang, Gorkha. He was the son of Kaji Nayan Singh Thapa who was killed in the war against the Kingdom of Kumaon. He was a nephew of Bhimsen Thapa and also the maternal uncle of Jang Bahadur Rana. Through his mother's side, he was the grandson of Kaji Ranajit Pande, who was the son of Kaji Tularam Pande. Kaji Tularam Pande was a cousin of Kaji Kalu Pande.

Rise to Power
Portrait of Colonel Mathabar Singh Thapa
Mathabar Singh Thapa, who was exiled to India when Bhimsen Thapa was supposedly found to be guilty of murdering the King Rajendra's son who was 6 months old, was asked to return to Nepal by the queen. Mathabar Singh Thapa arrived in Kathmandu Valley in 1843 April 17 where a great welcome was organized for him. After consolidating his position, he successfully led to the murder of all his political adversaries Karbir Pandey, Kulraj Pandey, Ranadal Pandey, Indrabir Thapa, Radabam Thapa, Kanak Singh Mahat, Gurulal Adhikari and many others, in several pretexts. The second queen of Rajendra, Queen Rajya Laxmi declared him Minister and Commander-In-Chief of the Nepalese army in 1843 December 25 believing he would help to usurp the power from Rajendra, her own husband, and make her own son, Ranendra as the king of Nepal.

Aftermath
The murder of Mathabar Singh Thapa led to the political instability in Nepal. Though, Fatte Jungh Shah was declared the Prime Minister (1845 September 23), Gagan Singh had more regiments of the army under him and was more powerful. Jung Bahadur Rana also had 3 regiments under him. Fatte Jungh Shah himself had 3 regiments of the army under his control. Also Gagan Singh had the special support of the queen Rajya Laxmi Devi. British Resident Sir Henry Lawrence once mentioned that, "If there is struggle for power, that struggle will be between Gagan Singh and Jung Bahadur." Ultimately, the extreme power of Gagan Singh led to his assassination by King Rajendra and Prime minister Fatte Jungh Shah in 1846 September 14 at 10 P.M.. The assassination of Gagan Singh led to the Kot massacre and ultimately, the rise of Jung Bahadur Rana.

Monday, April 30, 2018

Mukhtiyar General Mathabarsingh Thapa

Mukhtiyar General Mathabarsingh Thapa (मुख्तियार जनरल माथवरसिंह थापा)

First Nepalese Head of Government with title Prime Minister and crown, Mathavar Singh Thapa
7th Mukhtiyar and First Prime Minister of Nepal

Personal details
Born: 1798 A.D. Borlang, Gorkha
Mukhtiyar General Mathabarsingh Thapa
Died : 17 May 1845 A.D. (aged 47) Hanuman Dhoka Palace, Kathmandu
Mother: Rana Kumari Pande
Father: Nain Singh Thapa
Relatives: Bhimsen Thapa (uncle)
Jung Bahadur: Rana (nephew)
Residence: Thapathali Durbar
General & Commander-in-Chief (1843-1845)

Mathabar Singh Thapa was the Prime Minister and Commander in chief of the Nepalese Army from 1843 December 25 – 1845 May 17, until he was murdered by his nephew Jung Bahadur Rana. He was the first Mukhtiyar to title himself as a Prime Minister, as per the British convention. He was the nephew of Bhimsen Thapa, who was falsely sentenced for imprisonment for the death of King Rajendra's six months old son. Mathabar Singh Thapa fled to Shimla after the execution of Bhimsen Thapa, to avoid his own execution as he was Bhimsen’s nephew. Four years later, the second queen of Rajendra, Queen Rajya Lakshmi, called him back and installed him as the Prime Minister. Mathabar Singh, however, enraged the queen by refusing to make her son, Ranendra Bikram, the king. The queen, in turn, had him shot by his own nephew Janga Bahadur Rana and thereby making him the last dynast of the Thapa dynasty.

Not much is known of Mathabar Singh Thapa's childhood. He was born in Borlang, Gorkha. He was the son of Kaji Nayan Singh Thapa who was killed in the war against the Kingdom of Kumaon. He was a nephew of Bhimsen Thapa and also the maternal uncle of Jang Bahadur Rana. Through his mother's side, he was the grandson of Kaji Ranajit Pande, who was the son of Kaji Tularam Pande. Kaji Tularam Pande was a cousin of Kaji Kalu Pande.

Mathabar Singh Thapa, who was exiled to India when Bhimsen Thapa was supposedly found to be guilty of murdering the King Rajendra's son who was 6 months old, was asked to return to Nepal by the queen. Mathabar Singh Thapa arrived in Kathmandu Valley in 1843 April 17 where a great welcome was organized for him.[6] After consolidating his position, he successfully led to the murder of all his political adversaries Karbir Pandey, Kulraj Pandey, Ranadal Pandey, Indrabir Thapa, Radabam Thapa, Kanak Singh Mahat, Gurulal Adhikari and many others, in several pretexts. The second queen of Rajendra, Queen Rajya Laxmi declared him Minister and Commander-In-Chief of the Nepalese army in 1843 December 25 believing he would help to usurp the power from Rajendra, her own husband, and make her own son, Ranendra as the king of Nepal.

Before he was made the Minister and the Commander-In-Chief, he had led to the murder of almost all of his enemies and political adversaries. Having seen the fall of Bhimsen Thapa, he believed that having a personal army would prevent his own downfall; so he raised three regiments dedicated to him and only him. He built army barracks around his house for his personal protection. For this, he used the army like slaves, for which the resident Sir Henry Lawrence advised him not to do so. However, too over-confident in his power, Mathabar Singh Thapa ignored him. He even claimed that since the time of Prithvi Narayan Shah, he would be the first Prime Minister to die of old age and not out of conspiracy. In 1845 January 4, he declared himself as the "Prime Minister of Nepal". This was the first time anyone had been titled "Prime Minister" in the history of Nepal. All before him were either titled as Mukhtiyar or Mul Kajis. It is believed that at that time he had become even more powerful than the King of Nepal. His power and over-influence in the Nepalese politics and even in the personal life of the monarchy itself led to the eclipse of his power and his downfall by the hands of Jang Bahadur Rana.

When Mathabar Singh Thapa declined the Queen's request to help her make her own son king, the Queen joined those against him and plotted his downfall. But just to appease him, he was provided the title of "Prime Minister" while conspiracy to murder him was going on behind. Finally, when all the preparations for his murder were made, he was called to the Royal Palace at night, informing him incorrectly, that the Queen had been ill from some disease. Though he was warned by his own son, and his mother, he went to the palace. When he was sleeping Jang Bahadur was hiding under his bed. He was shot multiple times on his back from under the bed by Jang Bahadur Rana where he immediately died. The next day King Rajendra declared that he had himself killed Mathabar Singh Thapa accusing him of several activities that he had done to undermine his own (Rajendra's) power.

The murder of Mathabar Singh Thapa led to the political instability in Nepal. Though, Fatte Jungh Shah was declared the Prime Minister (1845 September 23), Gagan Singh had more regiments of the army under him and was more powerful. Jung Bahadur Rana also had 3 regiments under him. Fatte Jungh Shah himself had 3 regiments of the army under his control. Also Gagan Singh had the special support of the queen Rajya Laxmi Devi. British Resident Sir Henry Lawrence once mentioned that, "If there is struggle for power, that struggle will be between Gagan Singh and Jung Bahadur." Ultimately, the extreme power of Gagan Singh led to his assassination by King Rajendra and Prime minister Fatte Jungh Shah in 1846 September 14 at 10 P.M.. The assassination of Gagan Singh led to the Kot massacre and ultimately, the rise of Jung Bahadur Rana.

Mathabarsingh Thapa was the first prime minister of Nepal to wear a crown. The 104 year-ruling Rana Dynasty was also related to him.

Sri Chautaria Fatte Jang Shah

Fatteh_Jang_Shah
Sri Chautaria Fatte Jang Shah also popularly known as Fatte Jang Chautariya was the 6th Prime Minister of Nepal.

Fatya Jung Shah(Fatte Jang Shah) was born on 1805 A.D. as eldest son of Sri Chautaria Prana Shah and Chautaryani Moha Kumari Devi. He was 5th generation of King Prithvipati Shah of Gorkha. He was nephew of PM Chautariya Pushkar Shah. His 4 brothers were Colonel Sri Chautaria Guru Prasad Shah, Rajguru Ram Krishna Bahadur Shah, Captain Sardar Bir Bahadur Shah and Colonel Sri Chautaria Rana Sher Shah. His sister was Hiranya Garbha Devi, third wife of PM Jung Bahadur Rana. He was educated privately.

He was appointed Mukhtiyar (1840-1843). He lived in exile at Gaya, India from 1843 to 1845. Later, he was promoted to Full General and Commander of Three Regiments in 1845 after the exile. He then served as Mukhtiyar and Minister of Foreign Affairs (1845-1846).

He had three sons Sri Chautaria Khadga Bikram Shah (Khadga Babusaheb) who was killed with him at Kot Massacre. Other two are Guru Prasad Shah and Guna Bahadur Shah.

He was killed in Kot Massacre at the courtyard of Hanuman Dhoka Palace on 14 September 1846 A.D.

Man Mohan Adhikari

Man Mohan Adhikari was the 31st Prime Minister of Nepal from 1994 to 1995, representing the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist). He was the first democratically elected Communist Party member to be Prime Minister in Nepal.

He was Nepalese politician who dedicated most of his adult life to the fight against the monarchy and authoritarian rule; in 1994–95 he served as Nepal’s first communist prime minister for about nine months, during which he initiated a number of reforms, such as a build-your-own-village program to direct money to poor villages.

Contents 
Man Mohan Adhikari
1 Family and Early Life
2 Health and death
3 References

Family and Early Life
Born in Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal, he spent his childhood in Biratnagar. His family was a landowner Brahmin family of Eastern Nepal. He was sent to Varanasi to study in 1938. While studying for his B.Sc. in 1942, Adhikari took part in Quit India movement and he was arrested by the British colonial authorities and jailed along with other politicians. During his stay in India, Adhikari became involved in the communist movement, joining the Communist Party of India. He returned to Biratnagar and worked in chemical industry where, in March 1947, he took part in the Biratnagar jute mill strike and was arrested and taken to Kathmandu via land route along with Girija Prasad Koirala and Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala.

He took part in the founding of the Communist Party of Nepal in 1949. During the Bangladesh Liberation War, Adhikari asserted that the war was an Indian aggression against Pakistan.

In November 1994, elections were held following a dissolution of parliament. Despite Congress securing a higher popular vote than the UML, the latter secured 88 seats to the former's 83. Neither party was successful in forming a coalition to hold a majority of the 205 seats. After failed coalition negotiations, however, Adhikari became Prime Minister of a minority government, acquiring the support of the National Democratic Party and the Sadbhavana Party.

In June 1995, the National Democratic Party and the Sadbhavana Party (who helped the UML form a minority government in November 1994) supported the Nepali Congress's call for a vote of no-confidence in Adhikari's government in a special session of the House of Representatives. Adhikari attempted to dissolve parliament and call elections in an attempt to replicate the circumstances under which he assumed office in 1994. But a Supreme Court challenge led by Congress saw this move deemed unconstitutional and the parliament was restored. The vote of no-confidence proceeded successfully. Elections in 1995 saw Adhikari's government voted out of office.

Adhikari was one of the few democratically elected communist party members in the world to serve as head of the government.

Health and death
Adhikari suffered from asthma for four decades and went to China for four years to seek treatment after contracting tuberculosis.

On 19 April, he suffered a heart attack during an election rally in the village of Gothatar and fell into a coma. He was declared brain dead on 22 April with no hope of recovery. He died four days later. He was survived by his wife and two children.

Saturday, April 28, 2018

Sushil Koirala

Sushil Koirala was the Prime Minister of Nepal from 11 February 2014 to 10 October 2015. He was also President of the Nepali Congress party from 2010 to 2016.

Koirala was elected as Prime Minister of Nepal by the parliament on 9 February 2014. Koirala joined the Nepali Congress in 1952 and served in various capacities prior to becoming its president in 2010.
Famous As: Former Prime Minister Of Nepal
Susil Koirala

Nationality: Nepalese
Birthday: August 12, 1939
Died At Age: 76
Sun Sign: Leo
Born In: Biratnagar, Morang, Nepal
Father: Bodh Prasad Koirala
Mother: Kuminidi Koirala
Died On: February 9, 2016
Place Of Death: Kathmandu, Nepal

Childhood & Early Life
  • He was born on August 12, 1939 in the city of Biratnagar, Nepal to Bodh Prasad Koirala and Kuminidi Koirala as one of their six sons among nine children.
  • He was a descendant of the famous Koirala family of Nepal. Three of his cousins namely Girija Prasad Koirala, Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala and Matrika Prasad Koirala too served as Prime Minister of Nepal at different points of time.
  • Although Sushil Koirala had always maintained to have had an informal education, one of his sister-in-laws has informed that he attended a college in India from where he did his I.Com.
Personal life
Sushil Koirala was born to Bodh Prasad Koirala and Kuminidi Koirala on 12 August 1939 in Biratnagar, second-largest city of Nepal. Koirala was unmarried and known to live a simple life. A member of the politically prominent Koirala family, he was the cousin of former prime ministers Matrika Prasad Koirala, Girija Prasad Koirala and Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala.

A heavy smoker, Koirala was diagnosed with tongue cancer in 2006 and lung cancer in June 2014. He died on 10 February 2016 at 12:50 AM of pneumonia in Kathmandu, Nepal, at the age of 76. He used to be known as 'Sushil daa'. It is said that Koirala had a formal education of I.Com from a college of India according to his sister-in-law although he always mentioned his qualification as informal education.

Political career
Susil Koirala
Koirala entered politics in 1954 inspired by the social-democratic ideals of the Nepali Congress. In 1958 He keenly participated in Bhadra Abagya Aandalon, (Civil Disobedience Movement) launched by the Nepali Congress. In 1959, he actively involved himself in the party's objective of carrying out the democratic elections. The election saw Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala become the first elected prime minister of the country. However, King Mahendra planned and executed a coup in December 1960 and expelled Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala. This resulted in the exile of several members of the Nepali Congress to India, which included Sushil Koirala. He remained in political exile in India for 16 years following the royal takeover of 1960. Koirala also spent three years in Indian prisons for his involvement in a plane hijacking in 1973. While in exile, Koirala was the editor of Tarun, the official party publication. He has been a member of the Central Working Committee of the party since 1979 and was appointed General Secretary of the party in 1996 and Vice President in 1998.

In 2001, he lost the contest for the Nepali Congress Parliamentary Party leader to Sher Bahadur Deuba. Koirala was appointed acting President of the party in 2008 by President Girija Prasad Koirala. On 22 September 2010, the 12th general convention of the Nepali Congress elected him as party President.

The Nepali Congress emerged as the largest party in the 2013 Constituent Assembly elections under Koirala's leadership. He was elected leader of the Nepali Congress Parliamentary party securing 105 out of 194 votes against former Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba's 89 votes and on 10 February 2014 he was nominated as prime minister. During his tenure as prime minister, his government was criticized for its slow aid response to the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. A historic agreement among four major political parties was also made that year, which paved the way for a new constitution in the country. Honoring a pledge to stand down as prime minister once the new constitution came into effect, Koirala resigned on 10 October 2015. He sought re-election but was defeated by Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli, leader of Congress' former coalition partners CPN-UML.
Electoral history
He was elected to the Pratinidhi Sabha from the Banke-2 constituency in 1991 and 1999 on a Nepali Congress ticket.
1991 Pratinidhi Sabha Election Banke-2
Party
Candidate
Votes
Status
Nepali Congress
Sushil Koirala
-
Elected

1994 Pratinidhi Sabha Election Banke-2
Party
Candidate
Votes
Status
RPP
Shanti Shamsher Rana
15,711
Elected
Nepali Congress
Sushil Koirala
10,222
-

1999 Pratinidhi Sabha Election Banke-2
Party
Candidate
Votes
Status
Nepali Congress
Sushil Koirala
15,256
Elected
CPN (M.L)
Rijwan Ahammad Sah
6,185
-

2008 Constituent Assembly Election Banke-3
Koirala lost in the 2008 Constituent Assembly elections from Banke-3 coming in third behind the candidates of the Madeshi People's Rights Forum and the CPN (Maoist)
Party
Candidate
Votes
Status
M.P.R.F - Nepal
Sarbadev Prasad Ojha
14,900
Elected
UCPN (Maoists)
Parma Nanda Kurmi
6970
-
Nepali Congress
Sushil Koirala
5969


2013 Constituent Assembly Elections
Koirala contested the 2013 constituent assembly elections from Banke-3 and Chitwan-4, winning both races.[17] Koirala later relinquished the Chitwan-4 seat and represented Banke-3 in the 2nd Constituent Assembly.
Party
Candidate
Votes
Status
Nepali Congress
Sushil Koirala
10,753
Elected
R.P.P
Dhawal Shumsher Rana
8,809
-
UCPN (Maoists)
Damodar Acharya
6,135
-

Chitwan-4
Party
Candidate
Votes
Status
Nepali Congress
Sushil Koirala
20,760
Elected
UCPN (Maoists)
Chitra Bahadur Shrestha
10,739
-
CPN (UML)
Dil Kumari Rawal Thapa
10,067
-


Friday, April 27, 2018

Girija Prasad Koirala

Girija Prasad Koirala commonly known as G.P. Koirala, was a Nepalese politician. He headed the Nepali Congress and served as the Prime Minister of Nepal on four occasions, including from First term- 1991 to 1994, Second term- 1998 to 1999, Third term-2000 to 2001, and from Fourth term- 2006 to 2008. He was the Acting Head of State of Nepal between January 2007 and July 2008 as the country transitioned from a monarchy to a republic.

Koirala, who was active in politics for over sixty years, was a pioneer of the Nepalese labour movement, having started the first political workers' movement on Nepalese soil, known as the Biratnagar jute mill strike in his hometown, Biratnagar. In 1991 he became the first democratically elected Prime Minister since 1959, when his brother B.P. Koirala and the Nepali Congress party were swept into power in the country's first democratic election.

Personal life

Girija Prasad Koirala in his youth
Koirala was born in Saharsa, Bihar, British India, in 1924 into a Hill Brahmin family. His father, Krishna Prasad Koirala, was a Nepali living in exile. In 1952 Koirala married Sushma Koirala, headmistress at the local school for women in Biratnagar. Their daughter Sujata Koirala was born in 1953. Sushma died in a kerosene stove explosion in 1967.

Political career

Sketch portrait of Girija Prasad Koirala, Prime minister of Nepal
Koirala became involved in politics in 1947, leading the Biratnagar jute mill strike In 1948 Koirala founded the Nepal Mazdoor Congress, later known as the Nepal Trade Union Congress-Independent. Later, in 1952, he became the President of the Morang District Nepali Congress and held that office until he was arrested and imprisoned by King Mahendra following the 1960 royal coup. Upon his release in 1967, Koirala, along with other leaders and workers of the party, was exiled to India until his return to Nepal in 1979. Koirala was General Secretary of the Nepali Congress Party from 1975 to 1991. Koirala was actively involved in the 1990 Jana Andolan which led to the abrogation of the Panchayat rule and the introduction of multiparty politics into the country. He had signed on many treaties which are against nation.

First term
In Nepal's first multiparty democratic election in 1991, Koirala was elected as a member of parliament from the Morang-1 and Sunsari-5 constituencies. The Nepali Congress won 110 of the 205 seats in the Pratinidhi Sabha (House of Representatives), the lower house of parliament. He was subsequently elected as the leader of the Nepali Congress parliamentary party and was appointed as Prime Minister by King Birendra.

During his first term, the House of Representatives enacted legislation to liberalize education, media and health sectors in the country. The government also founded the Purbanchal University and the B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences(BPKIHS) in the Eastern Development Region and granted licenses to the private sector to run medical and engineering colleges in various parts of the country. The government also undertook the construction of the B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital in Bharatpur, Nepal with assistance from the government of China. In November 1994, he called for a dissolution of parliament and general elections after a procedural defeat on the floor of the House when 36 members of parliament (MPs) of his party went against a government-sponsored vote of confidence. This led to the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist)-led coalition coming to power in the elections that followed.

Second term
Koirala took over as Prime Minister from Surya Bahadur Thapa following the collapse of the coalition government led by Thapa. Koirala first headed a Nepali Congress minority government until 25 -12-1998, after which he headed a three-party coalition government with the  UML(Communist Party of Nepal) and the Nepal Sadbhawana Party.

Third term
Koirala became Prime Minister in 2000 for his third term following the resignation of Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, under whose leadership the Nepali Congress Party had won the parliamentary election. The party had won claiming that Krishna Prasad Bhattarai would be the Prime Minister, but Koirala led a group of dissident MPs and forced Bhattarai to resign or face a no-confidence motion. At that time Nepal was fighting a civil war against the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). Koirala resigned in July 2001[7] after which the military was mobilized in the civil war for the first time, something Koirala had unsuccessfully attempted to do while in office. He was replaced by former Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba, who was elected by a majority of members of the Nepali Congress.

Fourth term
After the Loktantra Andolan and the reinstatement of the Nepal House of Representatives, Pratinidhi Sabha, on 24 April 2006, Koirala was selected to become Prime Minister by the leaders of the Seven Party Alliance. The reinstated House of Representatives passed laws to strip the King of his powers and bring the Army under civilian control. Following the promulgation of the interim constitution, Koirala, as the Prime Minister, became the interim head of state of Nepal.

On 1 April 2007, Koirala was re-elected as Prime Minister to head a new government composed of the SPA and the CPN (Maoist). Following the April 2008 Constituent Assembly election, the Constituent Assembly voted to declare Nepal a republic on 28 May 2008. Koirala, speaking to the Constituent Assembly shortly before the vote, said that "we have a big responsibility now"; he said that Nepal was entering a "new era" and that "the nation's dream has come true".

Fifth term
Koirala continued again as the prime minister of Nepal for a fifth term. In the discussions on power-sharing that followed the declaration of a republic, the Nepali Congress proposed that Koirala become the first President of Nepal; however, the CPN (Maoist), which had emerged as the strongest party in the Constituent Assembly election, opposed this.

At a meeting of the Constituent Assembly on 26 June 2008, Koirala announced his resignation, although it would not be finalized until after the election of a President, to whom the resignation had to be submitted.

Koirala was present for the swearing in of Ram Baran Yadav, the first President of Nepal, on 23 July 2008. He submitted his resignation to Yadav later on the same day. CPN (M) Chairman Prachanda was elected by the Constituent Assembly to succeed Koirala on 15 August 2008; Koirala congratulated Prachanda on this occasion.

Later activity
Towards the end of his life, Koirala was leading a democratic front composed of parties that supported and promoted liberal democratic principles and aspired to establishment of a long-term democratic form of governance in Nepal. Koirala wrote Simple Convictions: My Struggle for Peace and Democracy.

Death

Sujata Koirala at funeral of Girija Prasad Koirala.
Koirala died at his daughter's home on 20 March 2010 at the age of 85, having suffered from asthma and pulmonary disease. His funeral was held at Pashupatinath Temple in Kathmandu on 21 March. Upon receiving news of his death, numerous politicians released statements of condolence. The Hindu described him as a "national guardian". Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh released a statement expressing his condolences, saying "Koirala was a mass leader and a statesman, whose knowledge and wisdom guided the polity of Nepal in the right direction at critical junctures in the country's history," while Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations said "Koirala fought fearlessly and at considerable personal sacrifice for justice and democratic rights in his country" and senior Maoist politician Baburam Bhattarai said "Koirala will be much missed, especially now that the country is nearing the end of the peace process that he facilitated".